Demystifying Coaxial Cables: A Comprehensive Guide to Types, Applications, and Installation

Coaxial cable is a common type of cable used to transmit signals and data. Commonly used in television signals, Internet, telephone, LAN and other fields. It consists of inner conductor, insulation layer, outer conductor and outer insulation layer. Here is a detailed description of coaxial cable:

Coaxial Cables

What is coaxial cable

Coaxial cable is a cable structure for transmitting signals, consisting of an inner center conductor, an insulation layer, a metal shielding layer and an outer insulation layer. The center conductor is separated from the outer metal shield by an insulating layer, forming a coaxial structure. Coaxial cables are designed to provide good signal transmission performance and immunity to interference. It is widely used in wireless communications, television broadcasting, computer networks and other fields to provide reliable signal transmission for various applications. Coaxial cable is widely praised for its efficient communication performance and wide range of applications.

 

Coaxial cable structure

  • Inner Conductor: A wire or tube, usually made of copper or aluminum, used to carry signals or electrical current.
  • Insulation: Insulating material, usually polyethylene (PE) or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), wrapped around the inner conductor to prevent interference with the external environment.
  • Outer conductor: A metal shield covering an insulation layer, usually made of copper mesh or aluminum foil, used to shield external interference signals and provide grounding.
  • Outer insulation: Insulating material, usually polyethylene (PE) or polyvinyl chloride (PVC), wrapped around the outer conductor to protect the cable from damage.

 

How coaxial cable works

The working principle of coaxial cable is based on its special structure and electromagnetic principle. It mainly implements signal transmission through the following steps:

  • Signal Transmission: The center conductor of a coaxial cable is responsible for transmitting signals. The signal is transmitted as an electric current through the center conductor.
  • Insulation isolation: The center conductor is isolated from the outer metal shield by an insulation layer. Insulation is usually made of insulating materials such as polyethylene (PE) or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) to prevent signal leakage or interference.
  • Shield protection: An external metal shield surrounds the insulation layer to form an electromagnetic shield. The shielding layer is usually made of aluminum foil and copper mesh and is used to block the influence of external electromagnetic interference on the signal.
  • Electromagnetic wave propagation: When a signal passes through a coaxial cable, it travels through the insulation in the form of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves are reflected inside the insulation layer and are protected by the shielding layer, reducing signal loss and interference.
  • Electromagnetic wave propagation: When a signal passes through a coaxial cable, it travels through the insulation in the form of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves are reflected inside the insulation layer and are protected by the shielding layer, reducing signal loss and interference.

 

How coaxial cable works

The working principle of coaxial cable is based on its special structure and electromagnetic principle. It mainly implements signal transmission through the following steps:

  • Signal Transmission: The center conductor of a coaxial cable is responsible for transmitting signals. The signal is transmitted as an electric current through the center conductor.
  • Insulation isolation: The center conductor is isolated from the outer metal shield by an insulation layer. Insulation is usually made of insulating materials such as polyethylene (PE) or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) to prevent signal leakage or interference.
  • Shield protection: An external metal shield surrounds the insulation layer to form an electromagnetic shield. The shielding layer is usually made of aluminum foil and copper mesh and is used to block the influence of external electromagnetic interference on the signal.

 

Coaxial cable type

RG-6 coaxial cable

RG-6 is a common coaxial cable type used for cable, satellite, and broadband Internet access. It has lower signal loss and higher frequency range, suitable for long-distance transmission and high-frequency signals.

Rg-11 coaxial cable

RG-11 is a coaxial cable thick enough for long distance transmission and high frequency applications. It has lower signal loss and higher bandwidth capabilities, making it suitable for large television networks, satellite communications and long-distance cable transmission.

Rg-59 coaxial cable

RG-59 is a coaxial cable commonly used for short-distance transmission, mainly used in security surveillance systems, video surveillance and low-frequency applications. It has high shielding effect and flexibility, and is suitable for indoor installation and short-distance signal transmission.

LMR coaxial cable

 The LMR (Low Loss Coaxial Cable) series is a set of coaxial cables designed specifically for wireless communications, featuring low loss and high frequency range. It is suitable for applications requiring long-distance transmission and high frequency such as mobile communications, cellular networks and satellite communications.

triaxial cable

Triax is a special type of coaxial cable with an additional internal shield that provides higher immunity to interference. It is commonly used in demanding measurement and testing applications such as aerospace, military and scientific research.

 

Coaxial cable applications

  • Cable and Satellite: Coaxial cable is the primary medium for transmitting television signals and is used in cable television networks and satellite television systems. It can transmit high-quality video and audio signals, providing clear images and sound effects.
  • Internet access: Coaxial cable is used to provide broadband Internet access, such as cable broadband and fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) networks. It can support high-speed data transmission and meet users’ needs for fast and stable Internet connections.
  • Wireless communication system: Coaxial cables are widely used for signal transmission between wireless communication base stations and antennas. It is used in mobile communication networks, cellular networks, radio broadcasts and satellite communications to provide reliable signal connections and anti-interference capabilities.
  • Radio frequency test and measurement: In the field of radio frequency test and measurement, coaxial cables are used to connect test equipment and the equipment under test to achieve high-precision signal transmission and measurement. It is widely used for antenna testing, signal generator and spectrum analyzer connections.
  • Military and Aerospace Applications: Coaxial cables play an important role in military and aerospace applications. It is used in signal transmission of radar systems, navigation systems, communication systems and spacecraft to meet the requirements of high reliability and anti-interference.
  • Video surveillance and security systems: Coaxial cables are used to connect cameras and surveillance equipment, transmit video signals and provide power. It is widely used in video surveillance systems, security systems and closed circuit television (CCTV) systems.

 

Coaxial cable installation steps

Step 1: Determine the installation location

Determine the installation location of the coaxial cable as needed, taking into account signal transmission distance, equipment connection and environmental factors.

Step Two: Measure and Cut

Use a measuring tool to measure the required cable length and use an appropriate tool, such as a wire stripper, to remove the outer insulation from both ends of the cable.

Step Three: Connect the Center Conductor

Insert the center conductor into the center lead hole of the connector and make sure the conductor makes good contact with the connector.

Step 4: Install shielding and insulation

Slide the shield and insulation into the connector outer insulation and make sure the shield and insulation are in good contact with the connector.

Step 5: Secure the connector

Use a tool, such as a wrench or torque tool, to secure the connector in place to ensure a secure connection.

Step 6: Install Brackets and Fasteners

Use brackets and fasteners as needed to secure cables in place to ensure they cannot be pulled or damaged.

Step 7: Connect the device

Plug the coaxial cable’s connector into the coaxial port of the corresponding device and make sure the connection is secure.

Step 8: Test and debug

After installation is completed, carry out necessary testing and debugging to ensure normal signal transmission, and make necessary adjustments and corrections.

 

When installing coaxial cable, care needs to be taken to avoid excessive bending or stretching of the cable, which may affect signal transmission quality. In addition, care should be taken to use proper tools and techniques to ensure that connections are secure and correct.

 

As an important transmission medium, coaxial cable plays an irreplaceable role in the fields of communication and data transmission. Its stable signal transmission characteristics and anti-interference ability make it widely used in various application fields. The correct selection, installation and maintenance of coaxial cables can ensure the stability and transmission quality of the communication system, and provide reliable support for people’s daily communication and data transmission.

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